Rationalism and reflectivism in ir theory politics essay

Rationalist theories embrace positivism to a certain extent which means they believe that the practice of IR can be reduced to simple and observable systemic rules and laws which their theories aim to document.

Neoliberal institutionalists attempt to divide a line between the economic and security realm, yet there is correlation between economic might and military might.

These kinds of coverage discourage voters from voting or contributing to the campaigns of female candidates, and moreover, discourage women from entering into a campaign. As explained in the game theory, more specifically Prisoners dilemma, states seek to maximize individual pay-offs, and so institutions offer a platform through which greater coordination and cooperation can be executed, subsequently benefitting both parties.

A logical contradiction between self-help and autonomy is purported through focussing on wars between great powers or economic bargaining between major powers, where autonomy is rarely an issue; these actions are not consistent with the rules and principles of Westphalian and international legal sovereignty Krasner, This can be contrasted with rationalists who argue that only structures can influence actor behaviour.

Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. Usually, they aim at achieving certain goals, as a rule with own interests and power in the center see Keohanep.

What unites these theoretical perspectives is how each of these one of these theories reject one or more key assumptions of the rationalist accounts, constituting the birth of post-positivism. Crucially, they agree that the acquisition of knowledge is based on the liberal notion of power and politics, which under-problematises the use of empirical material Smith, Positivism has been a methodological commitment, tied to an empiricist epistemology, which undeniably restricts the range of permissible ontological claims Smith,p.

It combines earlier realist thought with positivist epistemology and influence from rational choice theory. Neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism are simply manifestations of the same approach.

The scientific approach of positivism views both the social and political world as having patterns and regularities, a type of naturalism, suggesting that observation and experience is crucial to formulating and reviewing scientific theory.

For example, its emphasis on some non-state actors has allowed it to contribute towards institutional theory, in particular the ability of European states to work together in the framework of the European Union Pollack, It also expands its scope and methods beyond those traditionally utilized in Realist IR scholarship.

Oxford University Press, pp. Gender Theory and Feminisms Gender theory highlights the limitations of linguistic categories, [7] asserts the significance of intersectionality, [8] values concrete cultural context over universalisms and essentialisms for example, the notion of universal patriarchy[8] rigorously problematizes sex and gender binaries, [9] recounts and accounts for the history of sex and gender relations, [10] and deals directly with other theoretical strains such as structuralism, [11] post-structuralism, [12] socialism, [13] and psychoanalysis.

It uses similar concepts to neorealism but showed how they could be used to explain how states cooperate rather than compete with each other. Neoliberals show more concern as to how a state benefits overall, as opposed to how a state will benefit in comparison to others; it is suggested that policy makers will consider absolute gains to be made from an agreement, including potential longer-term gains.

The rationalist approach provides analytical debate for notable issues within the study of IR, such as cooperation among great powers, but offer little guidance in situations where their basic ontological assumption that states are autonomous actors is violated.

The two schools of thought have jostled over views of the international system in an attempt to define the world of international politics. In turn it can be criticized for many reasons. In the second debate, realism was challenged internally.

Similarly, Krasner criticizes the neoliberal school of thought for placing too much emphasis upon intentions, interests, and information, paying little attention to the distribution of capabilities Krasner,cited in Baldwin,p.

Introduction to international relations: Keohane and Nye argue that interdependence, particularly economic interdependence, is now an important feature of world politics. War occurs in this scenario when the expected benefits of war outweigh the expected costs.

Neorealism and its critics. Such generalizing rationalist theories help to explain in a systematized way why events have occurred, thus allowing for clearer future predictions of behaviour. The Globalization of World Politics: One tradition that exists within the field for this purpose is that of feminist anti-militarism.

Within a state, the existence of a central government that controls the means to violence keeps people in check. The realist view on international cooperation is rather more pessimistic.

Moravcsik clearly identifies this weakness, he states that Social Constructivism has "contributed far less to our empirical and theoretical understanding of European [studies] Difference feminism focusses on empowering women in particular through specific designs, implementations, and evaluations of policies that account for the material and cultural differences between men and women and their significance.

Both assume similar positions regarding the international system: As the debate has evolved the common assumptions of neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism have become increasingly obvious.

Neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism are simply manifestations of the same approach.

Feminism (international relations)

Discuss. Introduction. The debate between neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism has dominated International Relations (IR) theory, particularly in the United States.

" This argument has been one of the initiators of the debate between rationalism and reflectivism in International Relations (IR) theory.

This paper aims to question the relevancy of such argument for the reflectivist scholarship. Neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism are simply manifestations of the same approach. Discuss.

Rationalism (international relations)

Introduction. The debate between neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism has dominated International Relations (IR) theory, particularly in the United States. Since his post-positivist turn of the Eighties of the 20th Century, both the theory and discipline of international relations has become more plural and diverse, and its cartography can be drawn from three axes or lines of tension: the first one, in the epistemological realm has radical rationalism and reflectivism as extreme poles, with social.

International Relations. a study of relations between political entities at the nation-state level. Rationalism vs Reflectivism.

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such as Waltz believe that theory is a simplifying device that abstracts from the world in order to locate and identify key factors of interest. Feminism is a broad term given to works of those scholars who have sought to bring gender concerns into the academic study of international politics.

In terms of international relations (IR) theory, a feminist approach is grouped in the broad category of theoretical approaches known as reflectivism, representing a divergence from approaches adhering to a rationalist outlook based on the.

Rationalism and reflectivism in ir theory politics essay
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Feminism (international relations) - Wikipedia